Twinkle, Twinkle little star; how I wonder what you are! We have been singing this little rhyme from our childhood days and wondering how the universe is up there. Fortunately, we have many devices like telescopes to quench our thirst of curiosity regarding space and the universe. Wondering what really is a telescope and how far can telescopes see? Don’t worry, we have got you covered.
How Far Can Telescopes See? | Introduction
The telescope is one of the greatest inventions. The invention of telescopes highlighted those celestial objects which were once nearly non-existent from the earth. The creation of telescopes changed our perception not only for the Earth but also for the whole universe.
A telescope is built by using optical lenses or curved mirrors. It observes distant objects by their electromagnetic radiation and light emission. The telescopes make celestial objects appear bigger and, therefore, nearer to our human vision.
A telescope is built on mainly three design principles – refracting, reflecting, and catadioptric. Refracting telescopes use objective lenses to assist our vision. Reflecting telescopes use a concave mirror to gather light from the targeted object. The collected light is then distributed & focused on various other lenses. The telescopes built on the catadioptric design combine the techniques of refracting and reflecting telescopes. It uses the combination of lenses and curved mirrors to form a vision.
Telescope: History and Timeline
The word telescope means ‘to look far’ and is derived from the combination of two Greek words, tele and skopein. The term telescope was coined by a Greek mathematician, namely Giovanni Demisiani, in 1611.
The rough idea about telescopes was first made in 1608 by Hans Lippershey of the Netherlands. Later in 1609, Galileo Galilei entered the game and gave us the actual telescope. Galileo’s telescope could magnify an object up to 20 times. With his telescope’s help in 1610, Galileo confirmed the sun to be the center of the solar system. After Galileo, Johannes Kepler designed a telescope using convex lenses. Kepler’s telescope could make the images appear upside down and enable a much more extensive view.
Scientists like Isaac Newton, Jesse Ramsden, and many more have contributed to give the world the current form of telescopes. The first telescope was launched into space in 1970, which was a gamma-ray telescope named Uhuru.
Types of Telescope
Telescopes as an instrument hold a crucial place in astronomy and space science studies. A telescope facilitates us in collecting and analyzing radiation from celestial objects, which are light-years away from us.
A telescope has a lot of purposes, roles, and responsibilities to fulfill. Some of us just buy it for stargazing while some buy to solve the mysteries of the space. With such diverse applications to perform, telescopes come in a lot of types and varieties. Let’s look in further to know the types of telescopes.
Optical telescopes are the ones that gather light from the earthly objects. Later, the collected light is focused and mixed with the lights of celestial objects. It creates a magnified image for a direct view of the far-away objects. The optical telescopes have in-built electronic image sensors which are beneficial for collecting data.
The basic and primary schema of optical telescopes is their light-gathering element. The convex lens or concave mirror enabled in optical telescopes is used to gather light from distant objects. The following are the examples of optical telescopes: Hubble Space Telescope, Keck Observatory. The current largest optical telescope in the world is the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias.
Radio telescope detects radio emissions from the sky, natural celestial objects, or artificial satellites and sends them for further analysis. A radio telescope is a set of specialized antennas and radio receivers. Antennas and radio receivers receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources like pulsars, nebulas and radio galaxies. Radio telescopes are used to store and analyze radio light from the stars and other astronomical objects.
Radio telescopes collect and store radio waves and send them for further analysis and amplification. These telescopes observe the longest wavelengths of light ranging from 1 millimeter to over 10 meters long.
Some famous radio telescopes are Very Large Array, Arecibo, Effelsberg. China Sky Eye is the world’s largest radio telescope.
X-ray telescopes detect and resolve X-rays, flowing in the Earth’s atmosphere through several sources like the Sun. These are designed to observe unknown objects in the X-ray spectrum. X-ray telescopes are carried to high altitudes through rockets or balloons.
The primary element of the X-Ray telescope is the optics. Optics assist in collecting and measuring the radiation which enters the telescope from the environment. Copernicus, Suzaku, and Tenma are some examples of X-Ray Telescope. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the world’s most powerful X-ray telescope.
Gamma rays are the shortest waves and have the highest energy in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma-ray telescopes form an image through well-built aperture masks. Aperture masks make it easier to focus and provide a high-definition vision. Gamma-ray telescopes are usually taken to work through satellites or high-flying balloons.
The first gamma-ray telescope was carried by the American satellite Explorer 11 in 1961. The Fermi Telescope by NASA launched in 2008 is a Gamma-ray telescope.
How far can telescopes see?
The first question popping in our brains when thinking about buying a telescope is, “how far can telescopes see?” This question is always running in the minds of space enthusiasts like you. So, should we reveal the secret and give you the answer of the century?
The answer is “as enlarged and elongated, you want.” YES! Any telescope can provide you limitless scales of magnifications. It depends on the eyepiece, mirror, or lens added into the telescope’s end. The vision power or magnification capacity of the telescope can be customized as per the owner’s will.
As it is said, excess of everything is bad. Thus, excess magnification of telescope has its drawbacks. Extra telescopic magnification can blur your vision. So how to find the right highest magnification? Don’t worry; we are here with all the answers you need.
The telescope’s highest magnification is 50 times its aperture in inches. The aperture plays a strong game in deciding how far can telescopes see. Thus, the bigger aperture ensures a better vision range. Apart from the aperture, the telescope’s diameter is also one of the primary factors that decide the image quality. Telescope’s diameter determines the brightness and detailing of the image.
The telescope’s visibility also depends on various factors like the telescope’s size and the darkness of the sky. Other variables like the astronomer’s vision and city pollution also play an essential role in deciding how far can telescopes see.
Closure| How far can telescopes see?
Telescopes fulfill our dream to be closer to the distant objects shining beautifully in the sky. It magnifies celestial objects and helps in collecting the required data. While buying telescopes, one of the major concerns of a buyer is how far can telescopes see. Vision and magnification range is a crucial factor for any telescope.
Thus, when deciding a telescope, one should pay more attention to the diameter and aperture. The quality of the mirror or lens should be taken into consideration instead of the company’s magnification.
Remember, a telescope opens a gateway to the magical universe filled with stars and galaxies. Thus, you should research selecting the right kind of telescope that suits your purpose and atmospheric conditions. Choosing the correct type of telescope is very important for your space adventures; hence, choose wisely!