The New Year promises to offer rise to at least one of the foremost productive region exploration within the history of mankind three spacecraft will reach Mars directly from the USA, China, and therefore the UAE two more missions from us will attend asteroids. In 2021, Russia and India will attempt to make a soft moon landing for the primary time. If successful, NASA could get a second manned spacecraft to fly to the International space platform (ISS). And, finally, this year they promise to launch five new missiles directly for the primary time. Lenta.ru tells in additional detail about the prospects for 2021.
Manned Space Exploration
In January, the American spacecraft Boeing Starliner is thanks to dock with the International space platform (ISS) for the primary time after the failure of December 2019. With a crew, this spacecraft will fly to the ISS, just in case of successful completion of the winter mission, within the summer. NASA currently has the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft that successfully flew to the ISS with a crew in 2020. NASA’s two such operational spacecraft will provide the US space agency with guaranteed access for astronauts to near-earth orbit and can minimize the necessity for Russian (Soviet) Soyuz spacecraft.
Between 2006 and 2020, the value of space for NASA on Soyuz increased from $ 21.3 million to over $ 90 million. From the loss of the monopoly within the delivery of individuals to the ISS, Roscosmos will annually lose about $ 400 million. The advantage of the Russian state corporation over the American space agency within the delivery of individuals to the ISS remained from July 2011 to May 2020 (at about an equivalent time, the present CEO of Roscosmos Dmitry Rogozindirectly supervised the Russian rocket and space industry – first as deputy prime minister, then as head of the state corporation), during which Russia didn’t create a contemporary replacement for Soyuz (the Orel spacecraft remains not ready) … Possible answers arising from this to the questions What was the Russian cosmonautics doing at that time?” and “Where did the NASA money go? against the backdrop of various corruption scandals in Roscosmos, they suggest themselves.
In addition to us, China should distinguish itself in manned space in 2021, which, employing a Long March 5B heavy rocket from the Wenchang cosmodrome (northeastern coast of Hainan Island), planned the launch of the bottom module (Tianhe) of the national space platform within the second quarter. If this mission is successful, the second module of the station (Wentian) could enter low-earth orbit later within the year. After further development, this Chinese laboratory, which should contain a minimum of three modules, will become the third within the world (after the sunken Soviet-Russian “Mir” and therefore the operating ISS) manned multi-module orbital near-earth station.
In February 2021, Mars will reach three scientific missions directly. The American Mars-2020 includes a one-ton Perseverance rover and a two-kilogram Ingenuity helicopter-type drone. The mission will land at the Jezero Impact Crater, which was probably crammed with water in past. the most goal of the Mars-2020 program is astrobiological research. most tasks of the aircraft are to seek out the optimal and most promising routes for future rovers.
Other Martian missions include the UAE’s Hope Orbiter and China’s Tianwen-1. Hope will, especially, be engaged in climatic studies of Mars and therefore the study of the explanations for the leakage of hydrogen and oxygen from its atmosphere. The Hope Arab mission is often considered conditionally – the corresponding orbital probe is specially built by us.
The Tianwen-1 mission, which involves geophysical and astrobiological exploration of Mars, includes, especially, an orbiter and a rover. The latter is to land on the Utopia Plain, the most important shock basin known to science on Mars and within the system. With some reservations, Tianwen-1 is often considered the second Chinese mission to Mars: alongside the Russian Phobos-Grunt, which burned down and sank in January 2012, the Chinese microsatellite Yinghuo-1 was alleged to attend the Mars.
Soft Moon Landings
In October 2021, the primary Russian lunar mission is to fly to the Moon from the Vostochny cosmodrome employing a medium rocket Soyuz-2. Luna-25 assumes the landing of the descent vehicle within the area of the Boguslavsky crater near the South Pole of the Moon, which is perhaps rich in deposits of water ice. After landing, the device also will research the properties and composition of the polar soil, measure its mechanical characteristics. The name of the primary Russian lunar mission emphasizes the continuity with the lunar program of the USSR – during the last Soviet mission “Luna-24”, which happened in August 1976, soil samples were delivered to Earth from a satellite.
At the top of 2021, the Indian mission Chandrayaan-3 may fly to the Moon. The new program almost completely repeats the previous Chandrayaan-2, which led to failure (hard landing). Unlike the latter, Chandrayaan-3 includes a lander and rover but loses its orbiter. this mission is likely going to be postponed to early 2022. If Chandrayaan-3 succeeds, India will become the fourth (after the USSR, the USA, and China) or the fifth (after the USSR, the USA, China, and Russia, when the planned Luna-25 is carried out) country within the world that has made a soft landing on a natural satellite of the world.
In 2021, several American private companies are getting to send their missions to the Moon, additionally to Russia and India. one among these, Astrobotic Technology’s Peregrine Mission One, is thanks to launching in July with the heavy Vulcan Centaur rocket. The corresponding probe should land on the northeastern, visible side of the moon. As a part of the mission commissioned by NASA, it’s planned to check navigation and landing technology. In October, the Nova-C lander, created by Intuitive Machines for NASA, will fly to a natural satellite of the world employing a heavy Falcon 9 rocket to check the delivery of small loads to the Moon.
In July, NASA planned for the Jupiter Polar Orbiter (Juno) station to sink within the atmosphere of Jupiter. Thus, scientists are getting to prevent the ingress of biomaterial from Earth to the satellites of the Jovian planet, within the subglacial oceans of which life is allowed. Initially, the completion of the mission was planned for February 2018, but the superb condition of the spacecraft, especially its microelectronics, capable of operating within the harsh conditions of the field of the most important planet within the system, made it possible to continue its work.
During the mission, NASA researched Jupiter’s clouds and auroras, refined modern theories of the planet’s origin, structure, and physical properties of its atmosphere and magnetosphere. The station, launched in August 2011 from the Cape Canaveral cosmodrome using the Atlas V launch vehicle, received Jupiter in July 2016. The device is manufactured by the most important military-industrial company within the world, the American corporation Lockheed Martin, and is operated by NASA’s reaction propulsion Laboratory, located in Pasadena.
Nevertheless, the American space agency admits the continuation of Juno’s work until 2025. By the required time, the station, especially as a part of an extended mission, can have time to explore the three largest moons of Jupiter – Ganymede, Europa, and Io.
In July, the Falcon 9 with the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission to the double near-Earth asteroid from the Apollo group (65803) Didyme starts from Vandenberg base (California). The scientific program assumes a collision of the spacecraft with the moon of the most asteroid, which can change the trajectory of the binary numeration system. NASA plans to use the info obtained from the mission to develop one among the possible scenarios for countering the asteroid hazard, which consists of redirecting the latter from the world.
The start of another asteroid mission in 2020 is scheduled for October or November when the Atlas V heavy rocket with the Lucy station is launched from the cosmodrome at Cape Canaveral (Florida), during which it’s planned to review the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter. As a part of the mission, from April 2025 to March 2033, it’s planned to fly past a minimum of six asteroids.
In October, one of NASA’s flagship projects, the James Webb Space Telescope, is going to be launched from Kourou, French Guiana, using the ECU heavy rocket Ariane 5. Produced for quite $ 10 billion by the American military-industrial company Northrop Grumman, the infrared observatory is going to be installed at the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth system at a distance of about 1.6 million kilometers from the earth. most tasks of James Webb are the study of the first Universe, galaxies, and supermassive black holes, also as detailed studies of exoplanets.
In 2021, the subsequent missiles are often launched – New Glenn (American company Blue Origin), Vulcan (American United Launch Alliance), and H3 (Japanese corporation Mitsubishi Heavy Industries). especially, the Vulcan, which uses American engines, will replace the Atlas V, which receives the Russian RD-180 powertrain. additionally, this year the primary launch of the ECU Ariane 6 rocket is to require a place, which in its minimal configuration (A62) will replace the Russian Soyuz medium launch vehicle launched from the Kourou cosmodrome (French Guiana).
In the coming year, SpaceX will continue testing a prototype spacecraft Starship, which may make its first flight into space, and another American startup, Astra, will attempt to launch a payload into low-earth orbit using an ultralight Rocket launch vehicle. In 2021, China will attempt to land the primary two first stages of the Long March 8 medium rocket for the primary time. Experiments with reusable technologies involving the utilization of an aerodynamic brake and a parachute are going to be continued by the American company Rocket Lab, which successfully launches the ultralight carrier Electron.
In November, the American super-heavy rocket Space Launch System (SLS) may make its maiden flight. The launch vehicle, ranging from the toilet F. Kennedy Space Center (Florida), will launch the Orion reusable spacecraft into circumlunar orbit, also as several small experimental spacecraft. The SLS mission with Orion is going to be the primary within the Artemis program, the goal of which is to return us to the moon. Orion will stay in space for quite 25 days, including six during a circumlunar orbit, after which the spacecraft must return to Earth.