A MacBook with lines of code on its screen on a busy desk

The fog edge network provides an on-demand service with better latency, lower cost, and security. Furthermore, platforms like Bitsoft 360 have unique features like a user-friendly interface, suitability for all traders, and unique tools for bitcoin traders. In addition, smart contracts in Blockchain networks can be used by people to offload retrievable decentralized IoT data to fog/edge devices.

The centralized cloud services are not designed or optimized for the Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Fog computing offers on-demand services with better latency, lower cost, and security than centralized cloud systems do. While fog computing can be used by users in distributed IoT sensor networks and Cloud data analytics, it has not been used widely.

Many IoT devices are deployed with embedded A.R.M. processors, A.R.M.S., for cost reduction and energy efficiency rather than a conventional Central processing unit (CPU) or multi-core processors. Although I.P.M. can be used to process the data in the Fog Edge network, they are constrained by speed, power, and latency issues.

How can blockchain enhance Fog computing security and privacy?

Blockchains can secure the Fog edge network by providing a secure multi-entity private and permissioned distributed ledger for the generation and sharing of data, privacy rules, device-trust monitoring, and permission control on message transfer among the nodes.

Data privacy is an essential issue in IoT networks today; high-value data is at risk of being misused or compromised, which may lead to legal liabilities, reputational harm, and financial losses. People will manage the data privacy risk in blockchain-based IoT networks by implementing a centralized private key management system to share and manage private keys among the devices using fog computing. First, existing sensitive data is obfuscated by encrypting it with a symmetric-key algorithm salt. Then, the public key is shared on the blockchain network to ensure data privacy and avoid access to sensitive data.

The distributed hash table (D.H.T.) is a structured overlay network built upon a directed acyclic graph (D.A.G.). In the D.H.T. system, each node in the overlay holds a table of contents for a subset of the information stored on other nodes, thus reducing the reliance on servers and centralized control. As a result, D.H.T.s present an attractive alternative to server-centric storage networks because they are self-organizing, distributed, and require no dedicated communication infrastructures.

How can blockchain help edge services?

A key challenge to controlling data at the edge is that IoT devices often store only a small portion of data in memory but will be able to do so in the future due to the evolution of embedded computing. People can enhance blockchain-based edge computing by using a transactional mechanism and intelligent contracts (S.C.) to ensure tamper-proof and I.P.-protected IoT data at the edge. In addition, this technology can be used by people to verify data integrity, authenticity, and privacy.

Data integrity ensures data’s accuracy, validity, and consistency over the blockchain’s history. Finally, transaction Mechanisms provide an additional layer of security for IoT devices that are not directly connected to the blockchain network.

Cloud–IoT architecture

The cloud–IoT architecture provides a platform for Fog computing solutions with high performance and reliability. In this architecture, fog computing is primarily run in the data center where Blockchain nodes and centralized microservices are connected by resilient connectivity, significant bandwidth, and storage capacity.

Edge Network

In an edge network, IoT devices connected to the fog cloud send unencrypted data without central registration or storage unless required. The data are encrypted using a symmetric-key algorithm (e.g., AES256) that ensures data confidentiality, authentication, and privacy. 

The fog edge requires at least three fundamental components

First, intelligent Contracts on Blockchain are used to store device-sensitive parameters like analog sensors, physiological parameters, location information, etc. The SC is also used for controlling, scheduling, and triggering actions by sharing messages among the devices in the edge network.

S.C. allows the devices to communicate with other devices on blockchain and can establish secure peer-to-peer (P2P) communication among devices that are part of the IoT network. In addition, S.C. can collect and share critical information from the embedded sensors in a device, which is a prerequisite for many applications.


So far, deep IoT research has focused mainly on the I.T. infrastructure and operational aspects. However, there is an increasing awareness that this new paradigm may impact many other areas of economics and society besides its economic and societal benefits. 

Fog computing is an emerging trend in information processing. The fog edge network will run as a service with all network nodes connected to a common fog edge cloud that deals with all network communication. The architecture of fog edge will be based on hybrid cloud protocols like Amazon A.W.S., Google Cloud, and Microsoft Azure.

To sum up, IoT will become a new area of disruptive technologies, and technologies traditionally considered as I.T. areas are also facing changes with new IoT systems coming up in different industries day by day and changing their business processes or processes altogether.