Since the finish of the 1910s, there was at that point a ton of contriving in Spain and transparently. It tends to be seen, for instance, in the “agreeable” letters that Fernando Primo de Rivera – perhaps the most conspicuous warriors of the Restoration and uncle of things to come despot – sent Alfonso XIII. Out on the town in 1920, he proposed a sort of transitory tyranny, something like a military tutelage that needed to most recent two years to finish up, in the wake of cleansing the most bothersome components of the Army and the political class, in an overall political race.

Overall portrayed it as “an administration of checked common character, yet upheld by military power, which, without changing the sacred system, completely suspended it for a period.” As Javier Tusell brought up in a report for the 1998 magazine. The Adventure of History», this correspondence is the clearest illustration of the regular pressing factor endured by the ruler to acknowledge an overthrow like the one that won, not long after, with Miguel Primo de Rivera. What no one recollects today is that, before this happened, there was another intrigue in progress that might have raised as tyrant of Spain, not Primo de Rivera, but rather the failed to remember Francisco Aguilera (Ciudad Real, 1857 – Madrid, 1931 ). A similar antiquarian portrayed him as “an extremely brief general” who managed the Council of Military Justice and who, cheered by components of the left, needed to show up as the individual bound to request the greatest obligations from government officials for the Annual calamity.

That rout endured on Moroccan soil had delivered inside the Army a sensation of hostility concerning the Government, the pastors, and the delegates, whom our hero rebuked for continually asking their soldiers for essentially unimaginable missions, for example, stifling combative native individuals. without satisfactory methods and in terrible conditions. What’s more, he was right, since July 22, 1921, was a dark day for the historical backdrop of Spain, after the Riffian chief Abd el-Krim assaulted the Annual camp with his clans and caused somewhere in the range of 10,000 and 13,000 Spanish passings.

Political obligations

What happened was not kidding to such an extent that, before long, the Government of the Restoration forestalled the media from alluding to the calamity, to keep alarmed from spreading among the populace. «The peruser will see today a complete shortfall of data on Africa. Past oversight has been set up, “guaranteed ABC. In any case, when the misfortune started to spill out, it started a twofold response the nation over. From one viewpoint, it stunned the Spaniards, who were as yet damaged by the deficiency of the last settlements in 1898. What’s more, on the other, it revolted society enough so that, to be sure, obligations were requested and the causes that were examined were explored. they had caused the slaughter.

It was that second where our hero became possibly the most important factor, who needed to build up himself as the military man who planned to constrain lawmakers to accept their obligations in the thing had been, as indicated by numerous antiquarians, the best military destruction of our country in the twentieth century. Thusly, “Mulolini” (sic) — as everybody called General Aguilera concerning the Italian despot who had recently settled the main fundamentalist system ever—readied to strike a blow on the table.

Miguel Primo de Rivera, as of late delegated chief general of Barcelona, ​​was further away than Aguilera himself from being viewed as the head of extraordinary military development and he knew it. Furthermore, it isn’t because he needed challenging or interest in political undertakings, nor that he needed more help, but since his figure was examined for a period. Our hero, in actuality, appreciated more distinction inside the Army, in any event for the occasion, to the point that his name was rearranged to head a military index in the months preceding the rebellion of September 1923.

A “communist” rebellion

Nonetheless, when Primo de Rivera dispatched his “Quadrilateral”, as the core shaped by the four Madrid commanders who, from the start of 1923, assisted him with setting up his mob — Jose Cavalcanti, Federico Berenguer, Leopoldo Saro, and Antonio is known DabAn—, it was in every case clear to him that he should draw in Aguilera to his motivation. Also, in June of that year, exploiting the way that he was being held in Madrid by the Government, mindful that in Barcelona he had collected a lot of power, he didn’t spare a moment to meet with him. His visit in Madrid was expressive of the peril that the Government found in him, yet also of his absence of choice to calm him.

When he got back to Barcelona he was welcomed with yells of energy and abuses to the “fake” government. Albeit Primo de Rivera’s visit to the capital didn’t have quick impacts against the momentum sacred request, it assisted him with setting up contacts that would effectively affect the occasions of September 1923. In the first place, he set up close to home contact (before had recorded as a hard copy) with General Aguilera, who around then pulled in light of a legitimate concern for the left, to the point that the British representative credited to the upset that a specific “communist” character was being ready for him “, can be perused in” The trick and the overthrow de Estado by Primo de Rivera (UNED, 1991), additionally by Russell.

Aguilera, as far as concerns him, had not quit being exceptionally reproachful of the Government, even derisive, taking his constant irreverence to verge on a conviction for intrigue without having begun it. He accepted that he was on the rundown to coordinate the plans of the country. Primo de Rivera, notwithstanding, was disillusioned in him, part of the way in light of his absence of choice, yet additionally because his beginning stage as for the political arrangement of the Restoration was altogether different from his. Our hero rebuked him, for instance, for an overabundance of ID with the businesses in the work clashes in Barcelona, ​​and this mirrored a different vision from that of things to come, tyrant.

The slap

The plan of Primo de Rivera and his “Quadrilateral” continued to be, as his uncle had already proposed to King Alfonso XIII in the aforementioned letter, to displace political professionals from the government and replace them with a team of prestigious civilian technicians without assignment to any party. And they wanted to execute it immediately, but they would soon realize that it was not going to be that easy. In the first place, because Cavalcanti was prosecuted by the Supreme Council of Military Justice, as a result of his actions in Morocco, and made it difficult for him to take action. And, secondly, for a notorious incident involving Aguilera, due to a letter addressed to Joaquin Sanchez de Toca, from the Conservative Party, in which he condemned the entire political class for the country’s ills. An offense that quickly transcended and for which the president of the Council of Ministers, Jose Sanchez Guerra, slapped the soldier in public.

This offense exposed Francisco Aguilera and, above all, demonstrated his radical lack of political ability by devoting himself to verbally attacking politicians in a frontal manner and not by putting pressure on the barracks, which was where his coup d’etat should have been forged if, as it seemed, he was willing to give it. That finally ruled him out as a dictator, although the type of support he had achieved among left-wing Atheneist intellectuals, including Unamuno himself, and some liberal-leaning military commanders was significant.

“Mussolini” was discarded as the protagonist of any political action and in the Madrid bullies, it began to be commented that, although many generals were conspiring in the cafes, it was most likely that none was a real danger to the regime. They believed that the slap had shown that a determined action on the part of the Government could cut off any attempt at a pronouncement, but they were wrong because the situation worsened at the end of August and the beginning of September and Primo de Rivera became impatient now that Aguilera had been discarded as a future caudillo.