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Qalisa uhambo ngokuvela kokuvela kwamathuluzi okuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla, kusukela esiqalweni esiphansi kuya emasuni aphambili aphambili. Zitholele ukuthi intuthuko yezobuchwepheshe izenze kanjani kabusha izimboni, ihlinzeka ngemininingwane ebalulekile namandla okuqagela. Kusukela ezinhlelweni ze-SCADA kuye ku-AI ne-IoT, hlola umthelela oguquguqukayo walawa mathuluzi ekuphathweni kwempahla nokusebenza kahle. Cabangela ukuvakasha immediaterevolution360.org ukuze uxhumane nefemu yezemfundo lapho ungafunda khona ngokutshala imali futhi uqale ukwenza izinqumo eziqinile zokutshala izimali. 

Intuthuko Yezobuchwepheshe: Ukuguqula Ukuqapha Ukusebenza Kwempahla

Ukuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla kuye kwaba nenguquko enkulu ngokufika kobuchwepheshe obusezingeni eliphezulu. Esikhathini esidlule, izimpahla zokuqapha zazithembele kakhulu ezindleleni ezenziwa ngesandla nasemasu angavamile. Kodwa-ke, isimo sezwe siguquke kakhulu, singenisa inkathi yokuqanjwa kabusha kwedijithali.

Ukuthuthukiswa okubalulekile ukwethulwa kwezinhlelo zokulawula ukuqondisa kanye nokutholwa kwedatha (i-SCADA). Lawa masistimu aguqule amandla okuqapha ngokunika amandla ukutholwa nokulawula idatha ngesikhathi sangempela. Izinhlangano manje zingakwazi ukuqapha zikude futhi zilawule izimpahla zazo kalula nangempumelelo engakaze ibonwe. Izinhlelo ze-SCADA seziyinsika yokuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla yesimanje, ehlinzeka ngemininingwane ebalulekile mayelana nempilo yempahla nokusebenza.

Enye intuthuko ebalulekile ukuhlanganiswa kobuchwepheshe be-Intanethi Yezinto (IoT). Ngokuxhuma izimpahla namathuluzi ku-inthanethi, izinhlangano zingaqoqa inani elikhulu ledatha ngesikhathi sangempela. Le datha ingase ihlaziywe ukuze kuhlonzwe amaphethini, amathrendi, nokudidayo, okuvumela amasu okulondoloza aqagelayo. I-IoT iguqule ukuqapha kwempahla kusukela kokusebenza kuya kokusebenza, okuvumela izinhlangano ukuthi zilindele izinkinga ngaphambi kokuba zidlondlobale.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukwanda kokuhlaziywa kwedatha enkulu kunikeze izinhlangano amandla okusebenzisa amandla edatha kunanini ngaphambili. Ngokusebenzisa amasu okuhlaziya athuthukile, izinhlangano zingakhipha imininingwane engenzeka kumadathasethi amakhulu nayinkimbinkimbi. Le mininingwane inika amandla ukuthathwa kwezinqumo unolwazi futhi iqhubekisela phambili izinhlelo zokuthuthuka eziqhubekayo.

I-Artificial Intelligence (AI) ne- Machine Learning (ML) nazo zidlala indima ebalulekile ekuguquleni ukuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla. Lobu buchwepheshe buvumela izinhlangano ukuthi zizenzele imisebenzi evamile, zithole amaphethini kudatha, futhi zibikezele imiphumela yesikhathi esizayo ngokunemba okumangalisayo. Ama-algorithms e-AI ne-ML angahlaziya inani elikhulu ledatha ngesikhathi sangempela, okuvumela izinhlangano ukuthi zithuthukise ukusebenza kwempahla futhi zinciphise isikhathi sokuphumula.

Izicelo Eziqondene Nemboni

Ukusetshenziswa kwamathuluzi okuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla kuyehluka ezimbonini ezihlukahlukene, ngayinye inesethi yayo ehlukile yezinselele nezimfuneko. Emkhakheni wokukhiqiza, isibonelo, ukuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla kudlala indima ebalulekile ekuthuthukiseni izinqubo zokukhiqiza kanye nokunciphisa isikhathi sokuphumula. Ngokuqapha ngokucophelela impilo nokusebenza kwemishini, abakhiqizi bangakwazi ukuhlonza izinkinga ezingaba khona ngaphambi kokuba zibe nomthelela ekukhiqizeni futhi bathathe izinyathelo zokubhekana nazo.

Ngokufanayo, emkhakheni wezamandla nezinsiza, ukuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla kubalulekile ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukusebenza kahle nokwethembeka. Izinkampani zamandla zithembele kumathuluzi okuqapha impahla ukuze ziqaphe ingqalasizinda ebalulekile njengezitshalo zikagesi, izintambo zokudlulisa amandla, neziteshi ezincane. Ngokuqapha izinkomba zokusebenza ezibalulekile ezifana nezinga lokushisa lemishini, ukudlidliza, nokusetshenziswa kwamandla, izinkampani zamandla zingakwazi ukubona izinkinga ezingaba khona kusenesikhathi futhi zinqande isikhathi sokwehla esibizayo.

Embonini yezokuthutha nezokuthutha, ukuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla kubalulekile ukuze kuthuthukiswe ukuphathwa kwemikhumbi kanye nokusetshenziswa kwempahla. Izinkampani zezokuthutha zisebenzisa amathuluzi okuqapha ukuze zilandelele indawo, isimo, nokusebenza kwezimoto zazo kanye nempahla ngesikhathi sangempela. Ngokulungisa imizila, ukuhlela ukulungiswa, nokuqapha ukuziphatha kwabashayeli, izinkampani zezokuthutha zingathuthukisa ukusebenza kahle futhi zinciphise izindleko.

Izinselele Nezixazululo

Nakuba amathuluzi okuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla enikeza izinzuzo eziningi, futhi aveza izinselele izinhlangano okufanele zizulazule. Enye yezinselelo eziyinhloko ukuphatha inani elikhulu ledatha ngempumelelo. Ngokwanda kwamadivayisi nezinzwa ze-IoT, izinhlangano zigcwele idatha evela emithonjeni eyahlukene. Ukuphatha le datha nokukhipha imininingwane enengqondo kungaba umsebenzi onzima.

Ukukhathazeka nge-Cybersecurity nakho kubangela inselele enkulu ekuqaphelweni kokusebenza kwempahla. Njengoba izinhlangano zithembela kakhulu kubuchwepheshe bedijithali, ziba sengcupheni yokusatshiswa nokuhlaselwa nge-inthanethi. Ukuvikela ulwazi olubucayi nengqalasizinda ekusongelweni kohleloxhumano ngesiqoqelalwazi kudinga indlela yokuphepha enezingqimba eziningi.

Izingqinamba zokuhlanganisa enye inselele izinhlangano ezibhekana nazo lapho zisebenzisa amathuluzi okuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla. Ukuhlanganisa amasistimu nobuchwepheshe obuhlukene kungase kube inkimbinkimbi futhi kudle isikhathi, kudinga ukuhlela ngokucophelela nokwenza. Izinhlangano kufanele ziqinisekise ukuhlanganiswa okungenazihibe ukuze kukhuliswe ukusebenza kahle kwamathuluzi azo okuqapha.

Umbono Wesikhathi Esizayo

Ikusasa lokuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla ligcwele isithembiso namandla. Njengoba ubuchwepheshe buqhubeka buthuthuka ngesivinini esisheshayo, singalindela ukubona ukuqamba okusha okuqhubekayo kulo mkhakha. Ubuchwepheshe obusafufusa obufana ne-Artificial Intelligence (AI), i-Intanethi Yezinto (IoT), nokuhlaziywa kwedatha enkulu kuzodlala indima ebaluleke kakhulu ekulolongeni ikusasa lokuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla.

Ithrendi eyodwa eyinhloko okungenzeka ivele ukushintshela ekuhlaziyeni okubikezelwayo. Ngokusebenzisa i-AI nama-algorithms okufunda komshini, izinhlangano zingahlaziya idatha yomlando ukuze zibikezele ukusebenza kwempahla yesikhathi esizayo nezidingo zokunakekelwa. Le ndlela yokwenza izinto ingasiza izinhlangano zehlise isikhathi sokuphumula, zehlise izindleko zokunakekela, futhi zithuthukise impilo yempahla.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, singalindela ukubona ukugcizelela okuqhubekayo kokusimama nokusebenza kahle ekuqashweni kokusebenza kwempahla. Njengoba izinhlangano zifuna ukunciphisa umkhondo wazo wemvelo futhi zisebenze ngokuqhubekayo, amathuluzi okuqapha azodlala indima ebalulekile ekuthuthukiseni ukusetshenziswa kwamandla, ekwehliseni imfucuza, kanye nokunciphisa umthelela wemvelo.

Isiphetho:

Emhlabeni oqhutshwa idatha nobuchwepheshe, ukuvela kwamathuluzi okuqapha ukusebenza kwempahla kuyaqhubeka nokubumba isimo sezimboni zesimanje. Njengoba izinhlangano zamukela ukuqanjwa kabusha futhi zijwayelana nezimfuno ezihlala zishintsha, ukubaluleka kokuqapha okumatasa kanye nokuhlaziya okubikezelayo akunakweqiwa. Ngokuhlala ngaphambi kwejika nokusebenzisa amandla obuchwepheshe obusafufusa, amabhizinisi angavula amathuba amasha okukhula nempumelelo.