Does an Action have to return an ActionForwarding?

Ted Husted

No. Sometimes, it might be better for an Action to handle the request itself. For example, you might need to return dynamic content that would be impossible or impractical to create with a JavaServer Page. Or, you might need to return content using a special MIME type.

If the Action handles the request itself, and presents an appropriate view to the client, it can return null to the controller.